The Discovery of Black Hole

Black holes is the most fascinating topic in astronomy. The concept of a black hole-a region of space with an intense gravitational pull that nothing can escape is truly the stuff of science fiction. That is what Albert Einstein believed, his general theory of relativity predicted their existence, but he thought of his prediction as an error to be corrected. Black holes one of the strangest astronomical phenomena yet discovered.


Scientists can't directly observe black holes with telescopes that detect x-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation.  However, we can assume the existence of black holes and study them by seeing their effects on adjacent matter. If a black hole travels through a cloud of interstellar matter, for example, it will accrete(absorb) matter.



Einstein had completed 10 long years of dedicated work, successfully expanding his special theory of relativity to include gravitational forces along with electricity and magnetism.

Einstein’s theory contained a set of equations that could be used to determine the strength and direction of the force of gravity exerted in any natural situation. Einstein didn't live to see it, the universe proved the accuracy of his calculations in 1970, when Cygnus X-I was discovered about 7,000 light-years from Earth. It is about 8.7 times as massive as our Sun yet has a small diameter of only about 50 km.


How is a Black Hole Formed ?

Several explanations have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. According to the most accepted theory, black holes are very common and involve the disintegration of a massive star at the end of its life cycle. At that point, the star's hydrogen supply is almost depleted, and it can no longer burn at a sufficiently high temperature to prevent it from collapsing. In a supernova, the outer layers of the star are blown away, while the inner layers collapse into a dense core, which eventually creates the black hole.



Black Holes are divided into three categories.


1) Primordial Black Holes - These are the smallest black holes, with masses ranging from an atom to a mountain.


2) Stellar Black Holes - These are the most common type of black hole, with masses up to 20 times that of the Sun. There are several of this type tin the Milky Way.


3) Supermassive Black Holes - These are the biggest black holes, with masses greater than one million times that of the Sun.



Black holes, according to some theories, are the consequence of a galaxy game of bumper cars. The universe is full of neutron stars.  These are highly compact very hot stars formed during the supernova of smaller stars that are not sufficiently massive to create black holes.  On rare occasions, these stars will collide and grow large enough to generate a black hole when they combine.



The occurrence of "micro" or "small" black holes is the most unique discovery made regarding these phenomena. They have a mass far less than that of our Sun, and scientists are confused as to how stars with such low masses could produce black holes. That is a question for future generations of scientists to explore


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